Digital Privacy Tips
We live in an age where most everyone in the digital domain is being surveilled, profiled and targeted. That may be at a nation-state level, such as by the American NSA and British GCHQ with their mass-surveillance systems, or it may be at a private enterprise level, such as by the internet giants Google and Facebooks with their targeted advertising systems.
Digital privacy is the right to protect your personal information from: unpermitted collection, unpermitted use, and unpermitted distribution to third parties. This guide contains practical tips and suggestions that readers can use to increase their privacy in this hostile digital domain.
Before tackling digital privacy it is extremely important that one has a strong security regime in place. Please read this Sensible Computing Security Tips post as a starting point to secure your digital devices.
You can not be private unless you are first secure. Please keep up-to-date, enable disk encryption, use strong unique passwords and don’t be a victim of phishing and social engineering.
Depending in which country you live in, and possibly which provider you use, your internet activity may be snooped and logged by your internet service provider (ISP). That may include: which sites you visit, who you communicate with, at what time and for how long.
That information may also be mirrored by intelligence agencies to feed into their mass-surveillance systems, or the ISP may sell that information to advertisers to target ads to you. It is also possible that cybercriminals may attempt to steal that information for their own nefarious means. Basically if your activity is logged, it will be a target for various bad actors.
The most appropriate technology, for most people, to circumvent ISP snooping is a virtual private network (VPN). A VPN creates a private network across a public network, most often the internet. A genuine virtual network creates a secure encrypted tunnel to your VPN provider’s data center and then onto the internet thus blinding your ISP to your activity. Note, when using a VPN you are shifting your trust relationship from the ISP to the VPN provider, hence it is important that you select a trust-worthy commercial provider that respects your privacy and is secure.
Security-focussed VPN providers that I trust.
Note, the location of the provider and the end-point of a specific VPN connection may also need to be factored in, especially if escaping Five Eyes mass-surveillance systems is important.
An alternative to using a VPN is the Tor anonymity network. For most people, I do not recommend Tor for a number of reasons including: poor performance due to the multiple network hops involved, poor web experience due to the strict browsing mode used, and bandwidth constraints due to the basic architecture of the network. A VPN will provide a superior user experience. Tor however is appropriate, as part of a layered security regime, for dissidents, national security reporters, whistleblowers and other targeted users.
This Wirecutter article is a useful companion piece on the subject of VPN services.
The domain name system
(DNS) is effectively a phone book for computer addresses. DNS translates a
human-readable address, such as
www.google.com, to something a computing
device can understand, such as
The proprietor of a DNS service has great power, they can monitor your activity and they can also block or censor your activity.
Most people likely use the DNS servers provided by their ISP. Since ISPs may not be trust-worthy, I recommended changing your DNS configuration from ISP-supplied to a third-party DNS provider.
Note, when VPN connected, by way of a secure provider, you will be using the DNS servers of the VPN provider, which is desired. However, when not VPN connected I recommend Cloudflare’s 188.8.131.52 service.
Please configure Cloudflare’s DNS servers in your router.
184.108.40.206 (primary) 220.127.116.11 (secondary)
Lastly, Google offers fine DNS servers at
18.104.22.168, but I
recommend against their use if privacy is important. Google may use these DNS
servers to follow you for ad-targeting purposes.
In the Sensible Computing Security Tips post I recommended the use of Google Chrome with the following extensions:
That combination of browser and extensions increases security and privacy, they latter done by blocking many web trackers.
Privacy can further be enhanced by tweaking the following Chrome settings.
In Privacy and Security, enable
Send a "Do Not Track" request with your browsing traffic
Use a web service to help resolve navigation errors
Use a prediction service to help complete searches and URLs typed in the address bar
Use a prediction service to load pages more quickly
In Content Settings / Cookies, enable
Keep local data only until you quit your browser
Block third-party cookies
Note, the second to last cookie setting will clear your session cookies upon browser exit. Session cookies can be used to track and de-anonymize users, by clearing them you increase your privacy at the expense of more frequent re-login into web services. This latter inconvenience is not that onerous with browser auto-filled usernames and passwords.
Email is still one of the most common methods of electronic message exchange in use today. Email is an old technology that pre-dates the Internet. Privacy was never a consideration in its design, and to this date still has not been satisfactorily addressed, and likely never will be.
Note, I am ignoring the use PGP in Email because it is complicated, error-prone, and no longer recommended for use by leading cryptographers.
Many users incorrectly assume that an email exchange is a private correspondence. In reality it is more akin to a loud conservation in public. At a minimum the Email provider has access to all the plain-text content. Cybercriminals through to mass-surveillance systems may gain access to this content and exploit it as happened to John Podesta in 2016.
Some users also never delete their old emails from their provider’s system. In John Podesta’s case that was 60,000 emails and a world of hurt. Please consider deleting old emails, how often do you read emails from five years ago? Another note of caution, be careful what you say in email, only be prepared to write what you are comfortable with if, in the unlikely event, Wikileaks were to publish it.
When it comes to mass-surveillance systems the jurisdiction of the provider is a factor that should be considered. For instance, Google’s Gmail is an excellent Email service, but it can not be considered privacy-focussed because Google is a partner in the mass-surveillance PRISM program.
These European-based Email providers do respect privacy.
Email still has use today due to its simplicity and ubiquity, but when it comes to privacy please consider using the Signal application detailed next.
The Signal application is a modern end-to-end secure messaging application primarily used on Android and iOS devices.
The openly developed Signal application uses unobtrusive best-in-class cryptography contained in a simple interface that anyone, be they technical or non-technical, can use. Text, voice and photos can securely be exchanged between two or more parties.
Content is encrypted prior to sending and can only be decrypted by the intended recipient. The servers used to host the Signal service do not have access to the plain-text of a conversation, not even the FBI is able to gain access.
Note, both sender and recipient need the Signal application to be installed.
Android users can also make Signal their default SMS application, and one by one convince their friends to also adopt Signal. One such inducement to change is that SMS is not a secure technology.
The Signal application also supports disappearing messages. This feature ensures that messages will be removed from your device and the device of your recipient a chosen amount of time after they have read the message. This is especially important for highly sensitive messages.
Note, most complex software, including Signal, contains bugs. However, security flaws have historically been correctly very quickly by the Signal development team.
If you use a smart phone, and you care about messaging privately, then you and your contacts should be using Signal.
Google is an Internet-services and technology company with more then one billion active users. Google’s motto at one time was don’t be evil, but they never said anything about respecting a user’s privacy. If an internet service is free, like Google, then you are the product. In Google’s case they generate income by targeting ads specifically to you. They want to know who you are and what you like, and to figure this out Google gobbles up lots of user data.
To better target their ads Google will record the following details.
Your search queries
The search results you click on (including YouTube videos)
The IP address you use
The location, and movement, of your Google-linked devices
And likely a lot of other metadata
For Android, YouTube and Gmail users it is not practical to delete their Google account. However, there are some options a user can tweak to decrease the amount of data Google collects.
Log into to My Activity. This lists all the
activity Google records for your account. Delete all the archives you no longer
want Google to store. Select the Activity Controls and
pause all the
activities provided. Congratulations, Google is now collecting less of your
private information .
The above Google changes do not entirely free you from the Google ad-targeting monolith. Google will still record your queries, even if they say otherwise.
True private web searching requires the use of an alternate search service.
Privacy-respecting alternatives to Google search.
Facebook is the largest social networking service in the world. As of early 2018 there are estimated to be over 2 billion active users using the service.
Similar to Google’s online services, Facebook’s service is free of monetary cost, which in reality means you as the user are the service. Facebook monetizes their users by tracking and targeting ads specific to them.
Facebook’s business model is based on knowing who you are, where you are, what you like, who your friends are and much more. That data is used to create a profile which is then matched to ads that are likely to appeal to the user. Data collection is at the heart of how Facebook does business.
The tension between data collection and privacy has been at the center of a number of Facebook controversies.
There was the Facebook Beacon incident of 2008.
Beacon formed part of Facebook’s advertisement system that sent data from external websites to Facebook, for the purpose of allowing targeted advertisements and allowing users to share their activities with their friends. Beacon would report to Facebook on its members’ activities on third-party sites that also participate with Beacon. These activities would be published to users’ News Feed.
Some users were none too pleased to have their third-party purchases automatically noted on their Wall for all their Facebook friends to see.
Then in 2010, Facebook’s CEO Mark Zuckerberg articulated his opinion about online identity and privacy.
“You have one identity,” he emphasized three times in a single interview with David Kirkpatrick in his book, “The Facebook Effect.” “The days of you having a different image for your work friends or co-workers and for the other people you know are probably coming to an end pretty quickly.” He adds: “Having two identities for yourself is an example of a lack of integrity.”
Again, Facebook desperately wants to know who you really are.
In 2016 British consulting firm Cambridge Analytica acquired without content the personal data of tens of millions of Facebooks users with the aim of influencing the result of the US presidential election of the same year.
Subsequent to the Cambridge Analytica incident, Facebook announced in April 2018 that most of 2 billion users may have had their personal data scrapped from the site by malicious actors.
If you genuinely care about privacy and anonymity then you really should shutdown your Facebook account.
If closing your Facebook account is not an option then you should at least be aware of what Facebook is doing in the shadows, and take steps to minimize the amount of data Facebook collects.
A number of recommendations.
The Browser Privacy recommendations noted above will block much of Facebook’s third-party tracking.
Please stop over-sharing. Are you comfortable with strangers knowing what you post? Your birthday, pictures of your family, when you are on holiday? If not, then don’t share it in the first place.
Strengthen the privacy settings inside your Facebook account.
Go to Settings / Privacy and review the options. I suggest changing most options to
Likewise in Timeline & Tagging, change most options to
Location Historyin the Location section
In Ad Preferences / Ad Settings, disable all options
Periodically rereview your Facebook settings. Facebook has changed settings and defaults without user consent a number of times over the years. It is not certain the specific choices you make today will hold tomorrow.
The days of being unaware what Facebook is and what Facebook does should hopefully be over now. Use with caution, or better yet exit the service.
Google and Facebook are far from the the only user-as-a-service providers. Services such as Twitter, Linkedin, Yahoo and Instagram, to name a few, all roughly follow the same business model of Google and Facebook.
Much like the Facebook advice above, the first question you should ask yourself
is whether the provider is serving a genuinely useful purpose. If not, shut
it down. If yes, then please take the time and go to
look over the relevant Security and Privacy sections and turn off all options
that are not necessary, for instance advertiser related options.
Microsoft Windows is a common desktop and laptop operating system.
Over the years Microsoft has greatly improved the security of Windows. Windows 10 with an appropriate anti-malware solution is quite a secure system.
Unfortunately whilst Windows 10 is now relatively secure it is far less private than previous generations of Windows. Windows 10 has somewhat adopted the Google and Facebook user-as-service business model.
Windows 10, by default, sends a large amount of usage data back to Microsoft, especially if the Cortana assistant is enabled. Data that is sent back includes: location data, text and voice input, internet history, and telemetry data regarding general usage of the computer.
If privacy is a concern then do not use Windows 10. Apple Mac and Linux systems are far more respectful of user privacy. If one has the funds and is less technically inclined then simply purchase an Apple Mac. If on the other hand a user already has a Windows 10 system and is technically capable then it is recommended to replace Windows 10 with a Linux distribution such as Linux Mint.
If replacing Windows 10 is not viable then the next best option is to tweak the available controls.
Please do NOT enable the Cortana assistant during installation. If Cortana has already been enabled during a previous installation then please disable it
Please create and use local accounts rather than an online Microsoft-linked user accounts
In Settings / Privacy
Let apps use my advertising ID
Send Microsoft info about how I write
Let websites provide locally relevant context
The above options are the minimum options that should be disabled for increased user privacy. Preferably all Privacy options should be reviewed.
Webcams are now ever-present, they are to be found on latops, smartphones, tablets and even some smart TVs. Webcams are a target for cybercriminals. Being observed and recorded through a webcam without your knowledge or consent is about as an egregious an invasion of privacy as one can ever experience.
You should cover your webcams when not in use. Simply place a slice of tape over all inactive webcams. I like and recommend these camJAMR stickers.
Even a former Chief of the FBI recommends taping over your webcam.
Smart Homes & Voice Assistants
Home appliances, such as lighting, thermostats, security systems and fridges, are becoming smarter.
At the same time, the past few years has also seen the emergence of a new product category, the always-listening voice assistant, most notably: Amazon Alexa, Google Assistant, Apple Siri and Microsoft Cortana technologies.
The arrival of these technologies is extremely concerning from a security and privacy perspective. If a security flaw is found in a smart fridge will it ever be fixed and patched? Unlikely. Likewise, how will you ever know if an always-listening voice assistant, such as Amazon Alexa, is secretly recording your conversations without your consent? You will not know.
We survived generations without smart appliances and voice assistants, do we really need them now? If security and privacy are a concern, then no we do not.
Smartphones contain radios, microphones and cameras. Using these sensors a smartphone will know your location and can listen, watch and record you. A bad actor could remotely use a smartphone against a user without them knowing.
In today’s world a smartphones is an almost an indispensable device. Unlike a smart fridge, it is far less practical to give up a smartphone.
A reasonable compromise is to use a signal blocking pouch when you explicitly do not want a smartphone to potentially eavesdrop or track you. A signal blocking pouch is a faraday cage, it will block all incoming and outgoing signals to the encased smartphone.
When used appropriately, a signal blocking pouch will provide opportune privacy.
The tips and suggestions contained in this and the Computing Security posts are aimed at average citizens.
A different, and far tighter, operational security regime must be followed if you are a dissident, national security reporter or whistleblower. One misstep by such a targeted user may lead to prison or even death.
If you are actively being targeted then please do NOT rely on the advice provided in this post.
I suggest such targets instead refer to the following resources.
The right to privacy is a fundamental human right, not just a privilege, and that same right should transfer across to the digital domain. But the reality is privacy in the digital domain either does not exist or is being eroded.
Some would say, I have nothing to hide, so why should I care. The following quotes are my answer to anyone with such a dismissive attitude.
Benjamin Franklin (one of the Founding Fathers of the United States)
Those who would give up essential liberty, to purchase a little temporary safety, deserve neither liberty nor safety
Joseph Goebbels (Nazi Party)
If you have nothing to hide, you have nothing fear
Edward Snowden (Whistleblower)
Arguing that you don’t care about the right to privacy because you have nothing to hide is no different than saying you don’t care about free speech because you have nothing to say
Hopefully after reading this post you now have the knowledge to increase your digital privacy.